These definitions will be changing in 2010
For the purposes of the Terrestrial Code:
means a risk level judged by each OIE Member to be compatible with the protection of animal and public health within its territory.
means a mammal, bird or bee.
Animal for breeding or rearing
means a domesticated or confined animal which is not intended for slaughter within a short time.
Animal for slaughter
means an animal intended for slaughter within a short time, under the control of the relevant Veterinary Authority.
means a person with a knowledge of the behaviour and needs of animals who, with appropriate experience and a professional and positive response to an animalâ€™s needs, can achieve effective management and good welfare. Competence should be gained through formal training and/or practical experience.
Animal health status
means the status of a country or a zone with respect to an animal disease, according to the criteria listed in the relevant chapter of the Terrestrial Code dealing with the disease.
means the combination of the identification and registration of an animal individually, with a unique identifier, or collectively by its epidemiological unit or group, with a unique group identifier.
Animal identification system
means the inclusion and linking of components such as identification of establishments/owners, the person(s) responsible for the animal(s), movements and other records with animal identification.
means the ability to follow an animal or group of animals during all stages of its life.
means how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. An animal is in a good state of welfare if (as indicated by scientific evidence) it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe, able to express innate behaviour, and if it is not suffering from unpleasant states such as pain, fear and distress. Good animal welfare requires disease prevention and veterinary treatment, appropriate shelter, management, nutrition, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. Animal welfare refers to the state of the animal; the treatment that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane treatment.
means a naturally occurring, semi-synthetic or synthetic substance that exhibits antimicrobial activity (kill or inhibit the growth of micro-organisms). Anthelmintics and substances classed as disinfectants or antiseptics are excluded from this definition.
means a beehive or group of beehives whose management allows them to be considered as a single epidemiological unit.
Appropriate level of protection
means the level of protection deemed appropriate by the country establishing a sanitary measure to protect human or animal life or health within its territory.
means officially approved, accredited or registered by the Veterinary Authority.
Artificial insemination centre
means a facility approved by the Veterinary Authority and which meets the conditions set out in the Terrestrial Code for the collection, processing and/or storage of semen.
means a structure for the keeping of honey bee colonies that is being used for that purpose, including frameless hives, fixed frame hives and all designs of moveable frame hives (including nucleus hives), but not including packages or cages used to confine bees for the purpose of transport or isolation.
means a plan that identifies potential pathways for the introduction and spread of disease in a zone or compartment, and describes the measures which are being or will be applied to mitigate the disease risks, if applicable, in accordance with the recommendations in the Terrestrial Code.
means any airport, or any port, railway station or road check-point open to international trade of commodities, where import veterinary inspections can be performed.
means an individual animal infected by a pathogenic agent, with or without clinical signs.
means the Permanent Secretariat of the World Organisation for Animal Health which headquarters are:
12, rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, FRANCE
Telephone: 33-(0)1 44 15 18 88
Fax: 33-(0)1 42 67 09 87
Electronic mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
means a facility approved by the Veterinary Authority for the collection of embryos/ova and used exclusively for donor animals which meet the conditions of the Terrestrial Code.
means live animals, products of animal origin, animal genetic material, biological products and pathological material.
means an animal subpopulation contained in one or more establishments under a common biosecurity management system with a distinct health status with respect to a specific disease or specific diseases for which required surveillance, control and biosecurity measures have been applied for the purpose of international trade.
means the Veterinary Authority or other Governmental Authority of an OIE Member having the responsibility and competence for ensuring or supervising the implementation of animal health and welfare measures, international veterinary certification and other standards and recommendations in the Terrestrial Code in the whole territory.
means a non-self-propelled receptacle or other rigid structure for holding animals during a journey by one or several means of transport.
means a defined zone around and including suspected or infected establishments, taking into account the epidemiological factors and results of investigations, where control measures to prevent the spread of the infection are applied.
means birds aged not more than 72 hours after hatching.
means the irreversible loss of brain activity demonstrable by the loss of brain stem reflexes.
means the clinical and/or pathological manifestation of infection.
means the application, after thorough cleansing, of procedures intended to destroy the infectious or parasitic agents of animal diseases, including zoonoses; this applies to premises, vehicles and different objects which may have been directly or indirectly contaminated.
means the application of procedures intended to eliminate arthropods which may cause diseases or are potential vectors of infectious agents of animal diseases, including zoonoses.
Early detection system
means a system for the timely detection and identification of an incursion or emergence of diseases/infections in a country, zone or compartment. An early detection system should be under the control of the Veterinary Services and should include the following characteristics:
representative coverage of target animal populations by field services;
ability to undertake effective disease investigation and reporting;
access to laboratories capable of diagnosing and differentiating relevant diseases;
a training programme for veterinarians, veterinary para-professionals and others involved in handling animals for detecting and reporting unusual animal health incidents;
the legal obligation of private veterinarians to report to the Veterinary Authority;
a national chain command.
means a new infection resulting from the evolution or change of an existing pathogenic agent, a known infection spreading to a new geographic area or population, or a previously unrecognized pathogenic agent or disease diagnosed for the first time and which has a significant impact on animal or public health.
means a group of animals with a defined epidemiological relationship that share approximately the same likelihood of exposure to a pathogen. This may be because they share a common environment (e.g. animals in a pen), or because of common management practices. Usually, this is a herd or a flock. However, an epidemiological unit may also refer to groups such as animals belonging to residents of a village, or animals sharing a communal animal handling facility. The epidemiological relationship may differ from disease to disease, or even strain to strain of the pathogen.
Equivalence of sanitary measures
means the state wherein the sanitary measure(s) proposed by the exporting country as an alternative to those of the importing country, achieve(s) the same level of protection.
means the elimination of a pathogenic agent from a country or zone.
means the premises in which animals are kept.
means a country from which commodities are sent to another country.
means a number of animals of one kind kept together under human control or a congregation of gregarious wild animals. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Code, a flock is usually regarded as an epidemiological unit.
means a compartment in which the absence of the animal pathogen causing the disease under consideration has been demonstrated by all requirements specified in the Terrestrial Code for free status being met.
means a zone in which the absence of the disease under consideration has been demonstrated by the requirements specified in the Terrestrial Code for free status being met. Within the zone and at its borders, appropriate official veterinary control is effectively applied for animals and animal products, and their transportation.
means meat that has not been subjected to any treatment irreversibly modifying its organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics. This includes frozen meat, chilled meat, minced meat and mechanically recovered meat.
means the protein-containing residue obtained after the partial separation of fat and water during the process of rendering.
means fertilised bird eggs, suitable for incubation and hatching.
means a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or a condition of, an animal or animal product with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.
means the process of identifying the pathogenic agents which could potentially be introduced in the commodity considered for importation.
means a number of animals of one kind kept together under human control or a congregation of gregarious wild animals. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Code, a herd is usually regarded as an epidemiological unit.
means a country that is the final destination to which commodities are sent.
means the number of new cases or outbreaks of a disease that occur in a population at risk in a particular geographical area within a defined time interval.
means the longest period which elapses between the introduction of the pathogen into the animal and the occurrence of the first clinical signs of the disease.
means a zone in which the absence of the disease under consideration has not been demonstrated by the requirements specified in the Terrestrial Code being met.
means the entry and development or multiplication of an infectious agent in the body of humans or animals.
means the longest period during which an affected animal can be a source of infection.
means importation, exportation and transit of commodities.
International veterinary certificate
means a certificate, issued in conformity with the provisions of Chapter 5.2., describing the animal health and/or public health requirements which are fulfilled by the exported commodities.
An animal transport journey commences when the first animal is loaded onto a vehicle/vessel or into a container and ends when the last animal is unloaded, and includes any stationary resting/holding periods. The same animals do not commence a new journey until after a suitable period for rest and recuperation, with adequate feed and water.
means any procedure which causes the death of an animal.
means a properly equipped institution staffed by technically competent personnel under the control of a specialist in veterinary diagnostic methods, who is responsible for the validity of the results. The Veterinary Authority approves and monitors such laboratories with regard to the diagnostic tests required for international trade.
means pens, yards and other holding areas used for accommodating animals in order to give them necessary attention (such as water, feed, rest) before they are moved on or used for specific purposes including slaughter.
means the list of transmissible disease agreed by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates and set out in Chapter 1.2. of the Terrestrial Code.
Loading means the procedure of moving animals onto a vehicle/vessel or into a container for transport purposes, while unloading means the procedure of moving animals off a vehicle/vessel or out of a container.
means a place where animals are assembled for the purpose of trade or sale.
means all edible parts of an animal.
means the solid protein products obtained when animal tissues are rendered, and includes any intermediate protein product other than peptides of a molecular weight less than 10,000 daltons and amino-acids.
means meat that has been subjected to a treatment irreversibly modifying its organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics.
means the normal mammary secretion of milking animals obtained from one or more milkings without either addition to it or extraction from it.
means the product obtained by any processing of milk.
Modified stamping-out policy
see stamping-out policy.
means the intermittent performance and analysis of routine measurements and observations, aimed at detecting changes in the environment or health status of a population.
means a disease listed by the Veterinary Authority, and that, as soon as detected or suspected, must be brought to the attention of this Authority, in accordance with national regulations.
means the procedure by which:
the Veterinary Authority informs the Central Bureau,
the Central Bureau informs Veterinary Authority,
of the occurrence of an outbreak of disease or infection, according to the provisions of Chapter 1.1. of the Terrestrial Code.
Official control programme
means a programme which is approved, and managed or supervised by the Veterinary Authority of a country for the purpose of controlling a vector, pathogen or disease by specific measures applied throughout that country, or within a zone or compartment of that country.
means a veterinarian authorised by the Veterinary Authority of the country to perform certain designated official tasks associated with animal health and/or public health and inspections of commodities and, when appropriate, to certify in conformity with the provisions of Chapters 5.1. and 5.2. of the Terrestrial Code.
Official veterinary control
means the operations whereby the Veterinary Services, knowing the location of the animals and after taking appropriate actions to identify their owner or responsible keeper, are able to apply appropriate animal health measures, as required. This does not exclude other responsibilities of the Veterinary Services e.g. food safety.
means the occurrence of one or more cases in an epidemiological unit.
means samples obtained from live or dead animals, containing or suspected of containing infectious or parasitic agents, to be sent to a laboratory.
Place of shipment
means the place where the commodities are loaded into the vehicle or handed to the agency that will transport them to another country.
means a group of units sharing a common defined characteristic.
means the period between unloading and either recovery from the effects of the journey or slaughter (if this occurs before recovery).
means all domesticated birds, including backyard poultry, used for the production of meat or eggs for consumption, for the production of other commercial products, for restocking supplies of game, or for breeding these categories of birds, as well as fighting cocks used for any purpose.
Birds that are kept in captivity for any reason other than those reasons referred to in the preceding paragraph, including those that are kept for shows, races, exhibitions, competitions or for breeding or selling these categories of birds as well as pet birds, are not considered to be poultry.
means the period during which animals are identified, and often assembled for the purpose of loading them.
means the total number of cases or outbreaks of a disease that are present in a population at risk, in a particular geographical area, at one specified time or during a given period.
means a zone established to protect the health status of animals in a free country or free zone, from those in a country or zone of a different animal health status, using measures based on the epidemiology of the disease under consideration to prevent spread of the causative pathogenic agent into a free country or free zone. These measures may include, but are not limited to, vaccination, movement control and an intensified degree of surveillance.
Qualitative risk assessment
means an assessment where the outputs on the likelihood of the outcome or the magnitude of the consequences are expressed in qualitative terms such as â€˜highâ€™, â€˜mediumâ€™, â€˜lowâ€™ or â€˜negligibleâ€™.
is defined by International Standard ISO 8402 as â€˜the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needsâ€™.
Quantitative risk assessment
means an assessment where the outputs of the risk assessment are expressed numerically.
means a premises under the control of the Veterinary Authority where animals are maintained in isolation with no direct or indirect contact with other animals, to prevent the transmission of specified pathogen(s) while the animals are undergoing observation for a specified length of time and, if appropriate, testing and treatment.
is the action by which information on animals (such as identification, animal health, movement, certification, epidemiology, establishments) is collected, recorded, securely stored and made appropriately accessible and able to be utilised by the Competent Authority.
means a place where the journey is interrupted to rest, feed or water the animals; the animals may remain in the vehicle/vessel or container, or be unloaded for these purposes.
means the application to an animal of any procedure designed to restrict its movements.
means the likelihood of the occurrence and the likely magnitude of the biological and economic consequences of an adverse event or effect to animal or human health.
means the process composed of hazard identification, risk assessment, risk management and risk communication.
means the evaluation of the likelihood and the biological and economic consequences of entry, establishment and spread of a hazard within the territory of an importing country.
is the interactive transmission and exchange of information and opinions throughout the risk analysis process concerning risk, risk-related factors and risk perceptions among risk assessors, risk managers, risk communicators, the general public and other interested parties.
means the process of identifying, selecting and implementing measures that can be applied to reduce the level of risk.
means a measure, such as those described in various chapters of the Terrestrial Code, destined to protect animal or human health or life within the territory of the OIE Member from risks arising from the entry, establishment and/or spread of a hazard.
means any procedure which causes the death of an animal by bleeding.
means premises, including facilities for moving or lairaging animals, used for the slaughter of animals to produce animal products and approved by the Veterinary Services or other Competent Authority.
means the measure of the floor area and height allocated per individual or body weight of animals.
means the surveillance targeted to a specific disease or infection.
means carrying out under the authority of the Veterinary Authority, on confirmation of a disease, the killing of the animals which are affected and those suspected of being affected in the herd and, where appropriate, those in other herds which have been exposed to infection by direct animal to animal contact, or by indirect contact of a kind likely to cause the transmission of the causal pathogen. All susceptible animals, vaccinated or unvaccinated, on an infected premises should be killed and their carcasses destroyed by burning or burial, or by any other method which will eliminate the spread of infection through the carcasses or products of the animals killed.
This policy should be accompanied by the cleansing and disinfection procedures defined in the Terrestrial Code.
The term modified stamping-out policy should be used in communications to the OIE whenever the above animal health measures are not implemented in full and details of the modifications should be given.
means the number or body weight of animals per unit area on a vehicle/vessel or container.
means any mechanical, electrical, chemical or other procedure which causes immediate loss of consciousness; when used before slaughter, the loss of consciousness lasts until death from the slaughter process; in the absence of slaughter, the procedure would allow the animal to recover consciousness.
means a distinct part of a population identifiable according to specific common animal health characteristics.
means the systematic ongoing collection, collation, and analysis of information related to animal health and the timely dissemination of information to those who need to know so that action can be taken.
means the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code.
means the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals.
means a country through which commodities destined for an importing country are transported or in which a stopover is made at a border post.
means the comprehensive documentation of all data, information, assumptions, methods, results, discussion and conclusions used in the risk analysis. Conclusions should be supported by an objective and logical discussion and the document should be fully referenced.
means the procedures associated with the carrying of animals for commercial purposes from one location to another by any means.
means the person licensed by the Competent Authority to transport animals.
means the movement of a vehicle/vessel or container carrying animals from one location to another.
means the lack of precise knowledge of the input values which is due to measurement error or to lack of knowledge of the steps required, and the pathways from hazard to risk, when building the scenario being assessed.
means an individually identifiable element used to describe, for example, the members of a population or the elements selected when sampling; examples of units include individual animals, herds, flocks and apiaries.
means the successful immunisation of susceptible animals through the administration, according to the manufacturer’s instructions and the Terrestrial Manual, where relevant, of a vaccine comprising antigens appropriate to the disease to be controlled.
means a real-world complexity in which the value of an input is not the same for each case due to natural diversity in a given population.
means an insect or any living carrier that transports an infectious agent from an infected individual to a susceptible individual or its food or immediate surroundings. The organism may or may not pass through a development cycle within the vector.
means any means of conveyance including train, truck, aircraft or ship that is used for carrying animal(s).
means a person registered or licensed by the relevant veterinary statutory body of a country to practice veterinary medicine/science in that country.
means the Governmental Authority of an OIE Member, comprising veterinarians, other professionals and para-professionals, having the responsibility and competence for ensuring or supervising the implementation of animal health and welfare measures, international veterinary certification and other standards and recommendations in the Terrestrial Code in the whole territory.
means a person who, for the purposes of the Terrestrial Code, is authorised by the veterinary statutory body to carry out certain designated tasks (dependent upon the category of veterinary para-professional) in a territory, and delegated to them under the responsibility and direction of a veterinarian. The tasks for each category of veterinary para-professional should be defined by the veterinary statutory body depending on qualifications and training, and according to need.
means the governmental and non-governmental organisations that implement animal health and welfare measures and other standards and recommendations in the Terrestrial Code in the territory. The Veterinary Services are under the overall control and direction of the Veterinary Authority. Private sector organisations, veterinarians or veterinary paraprofessionals are normally accredited or approved to deliver functions by the Veterinary Authority.
Veterinary statutory body
means an autonomous authority regulating veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals.
means a clearly defined part of a territory containing an animal subpopulation with a distinct health status with respect to a specific disease for which required surveillance, control and biosecurity measures have been applied for the purpose of international trade.
means any disease or infection which is naturally transmissible from animals to humans.